Cover Image

The synergy between flood risk protection and spatial quality in coastal cities

Anne Loes Nillesen

Abstract


Coastal regions throughout the world are subject to flood risk challenges. This paper concentrates on the Netherlands; its coastline fulfils an important role in the protection of the Dutch delta. Due to the expected sea level rise, part of the Dutch coastline will have to be reinforced. Along most of the sparsely occupied coastline, the space needed for the reinforcement of the flood risk protection infrastructure can be found easily, either on the seaside or inland. However, some segments of the coastline have been built upon and are difficult to reinforce; buildings have limited the adaptability of the originally flexible coast. One of these locations is Scheveningen, a borough of the city The Hague and a seaside mass-tourism resort operating on a national scale. It is difficult to reinforce the borough’s flood risk infrastructure without significant restructuring. In addition to water-safety issues, Scheveningen faces social-economic challenges and needs a qualitative programmatic and spatial impulse. An integrated approach to spatial and flood risk design is essential to come to a qualitatively as well as functionally acceptable solution for multifunctional flood defences. This paper describes and demonstrates the approach and application of an integral ‘research by design’ study for flood risk management and spatial quality in Scheveningen. It is the result of a collaborative effort between spatial designers and flood risk engineers, who worked together in so-called ‘Delta ateliers’. Three different flood risk strategies (‘a sandy shore’, ‘a hard protection body’ and ‘a perpendicular dam’) are used as leading principles for integral designs in which both the spatial assignment as well as the long term flood risk protection assignment are addressed. This results in three different designs that are discussed in relation to their spatial potential and hydraulic efficiency. This applied research by design approach was considered very valuable–even essential–to feed the debate regarding the choice of a flood risk intervention. As a result, this approach will be continued throughout the Dutch National ‘Delta Programme’ that focusses on long term flood risk protection.


Keywords


flood risk protection; seaside, waterfront; spatial quality; integrated design; Delta Programme; research by design; Dutch delta; Scheveningen

Full Text:

PDF

References


Arcadis & Alkyon (2005) Startdocument versterking zeewering Scheveningen, report 110403/CE5/021/001485

Atelier Kustkwaliteit (2011) De Stad aan Zee

Hidding, M. & M. van der Vlist (2009) Ruimte en Water. The Hague, SDU Uitgevers

Delta Programme (2008) Working together with water. Retrieved from: http://www.deltacommissie.com/doc/deltareport_full.pdf [accessed 1 July 2013]

Jong, T.M. de & D.J.M. van der Voordt (eds.) (2005) Ways to study and research: urban, architectural and technical design. Delft, DUP Science

Geldof, C. & N. Janssens (2013) Van ontwerpmatig denken naar onderzoek. Retrieved from: http://www.google.nl/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CC0QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.vliz.be%2Fimisdocs%2Fpublications%2F126406.pdf&ei=zqowUvXhKajw4QTlpYCADg&usg=AFQjCNH8_qMI6_KC5TBLmc66SjW4KDW3Ig [accessed: 11 September 2013]

Girling, C., R. Kellett & S. Johnstone (2006) Informing Design Charettes, Tools for participation in neighbourhood scale planning. The Integrated Assessment Journal 6 (4): 109-130

IPCC (2007) ‘Climate Change, Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability’ [Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change], in: M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P. Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden & C.E. Hanson (eds.) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). New York, Cambridge University Press

McHarg, I. (1969) Design with nature. New York, The Natural History Press

Meyer, H. & S. Nijhuis (2013) Delta urbanism: planning and design in urbanized deltas – comparing the Dutch delta with the Mississippi River delta. Journal of Urbanism 6 (2): 160-191. DOI: 10.1080/17549175.2013.820210

Mulder, J., S. Hommes & E. Horstman (2011) Implementation of coastal erosion management in the Netherlands. Ocean & Coastal Management 54: 888-897

Municipality of The Hague (2009) Masterplan Scheveningen Kust

Nillesen, A.L. (2014) Improving the allocation of flood-risk interventions from a spatial quality perspective. Journal of Landscape Architecture (in press)

Prominski, M. et al. (2012) River.Space.Design. Basel, Birkhäuser

Provincie Zuid-Holland (2009) GEBIEDSVISIE Integraal Ruimtelijk Project Delflandse Kust, http://www.denhaag.nl/home/bewoners/gemeente/document/Gebiedsvisie-Delflandse-Kust.htm [accessed 11 September 2013]

Sanof, H. (2000) Community participation Methods in design and planning. New York, John Wily and Sons, pp 111-113.

VROM, Ministry of (Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment) (1990) Eerste Kustnota: Kustverdediging na 1990 (National Coastal Defence Strategy). The Hague

VROM, Ministry of (Housing, Spatial Planning and the environment) (2001) Vijfde Nota over de ruimtelijke ordening 2000-2020 (National Spatial Strategy). The Hague

VROM, Ministry of (Housing, Spatial Planning and the environment) (2006) Nota Ruimte (National Spatial Strategy). The Hague




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7480/rius.3.840

Copyright (c) 2015 Anne Loes Nillesen

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.