Cover Image

Urban landscape infrastructures. Designing operative landscape structures for the built environment

Steffen Nijhuis, Daniel Jauslin

Abstract


This paper explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure. The hybridisation of the two concepts, landscape and infrastructure, seeks to redefine infrastructure beyond its strictly utilitarian definition, while allowing design disciplines to gain operative force in territorial transformation processes. This paper aims to put forward urban landscape infrastructures as a design concept, considering them as armatures for urban development and for facilitating functional, social and ecological interactions. It seeks to redefine infrastructural design as an interdisciplinary design effort to establish a local identity through tangible relationships to a place or region. Urban landscape infrastructures can thereby be used as a vehicle to re-establish the role of design as an integrating practice. This paper positions urban landscape infrastructure design in the contemporary discourse on landscape infrastructures. The space of flows, as opposed to the space of places, is introduced as an impetus to develop the concept of landscape infrastructure into a more comprehensive form of urban landscape architecture. Furthermore, this paper outlines a set of principles typical for urban landscape infrastructure design and suggests three potential fields of operation: transport, green and water landscape infrastructure. The design of these operative landscape structures is a crosscutting field that involves multiple disciplines in which the role of designers is essential.


Keywords


landscape infrastructure; flowscapes; design; urbanism; transport; green infrastructure; infrastructural urbanism; landscape architecture; systems thinking; architecture; regional design; infrastructure

Full Text:

PDF

References


Allen, S. (1999) ‘Infrastructural urbanism’, in: idem, Points + Lines. Diagrams and Projects for the City. New York, Princeton Architectural Press, pp. 46-59

Baccini, P. & P. Brunner (2012) Metabolism of the Anthroposphere. Analysis, evaluation, design. Cambridge (Mass.), The MIT Press.

Badenoch, A. and A. Fickers (eds.) (2010) Materializing Europe: Transnational Infrastructures and the Project of Europe. London, Palgrave

Barles, S. (2007) Urban metabolism and river systems: an historical perspective – Paris and the Seine, 1790-1970. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 11: 1757-1769

Batty, M. (2013) The new science of cities. Cambridge (Mass.), The MIT Press

Bélanger, P. (2009) Landscape as Infrastructure. Landscape Journal 28(1): 79-95

Bélanger, P. (2010) ‘Redefining infrastructure’, in: Mostafavi, M. & G. Doherthy (eds.) Ecological urbanism. Baden, Lars Müller Publishers, pp. 332-349

Bélanger, P. (2013) Landscape infrastructure. Urbanism beyond engineering. Wageningen, Wageningen University.

Benyus, J. (2011) A Biomimicry Primer

Berger, A. (2006) Drosscape. Wasting land in urban America. New York, Princeton Architectural Press.

Braae, E. (2015) Beauty Redeemed. Recycling Post-Industrial Landscapes. Basel, etc., Birkhäuser

Braudel, F. (1966) La Medtiterranee: La part du milieu. Paris, Librairie Armand Colin

Busquets, J. & F. Correa (eds.) (2006) Cities X Lines. Approaches to City and Open Territory Design. Nicolodi Editore

Carlson, D. (2013) The Humanity of Infrastructure. Landscape as Operative Ground. Scenario journal 3 (http://scenariojournal.com/article/humanity-of-infrastructure/, accessed April 2015)

Carr, S. et al. (1992) Public space. Cambridge (Mass.), Cambridge University Press

Castells, M. (2000) The rise of the network society (The information age: economy, society and culture, volume 1). London, Blackwell publishing

Chadwick, G.F. (1966) Park and town. London, Architectural Press

Cioc, M. (2002) The Rhine: An Eco-Biography (1815-2000). University of Washington Press

Corner, J. (2004) Not unlike life itself. Landscape strategy now. Harvard Design Magazine 21: 31-34

Council of Europe (2000) European Landscape Convention. Florence (European Treaty Series 176)

Cronon, W. (1991) Nature’s metropolis. Chicago and the Great West. New York & London, W.W. Norton & Company

Crutzen, P. (2002) Geology of mankind. Nature 415: 23

Czechowski, D., T. Hauck and G. Hausladen (eds.) (2015) Revising green infrastructure. Concepts between nature and design. London, etc., CRC Press

Dalby, M. (2002) Regional Visionaries and Metropolitan Boosters. Decentralization, regional planning and parkway during the interwar years. Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers

De Boer, H., et al. (2015) Onder weg. Vijftien ontwerpen voor Transit Oriented Development (TOD) aan de Zaancorridor. S.l., BNA Onderzoek

De Meulder, B. & K. Shannon (2008) Water urbanisms. Amsterdam, SUN Architecture

Disco, C. (2008) ‘Taming the Rhine: Economic Connection and Urban Competition’, in: Hard, M. & T.J. Misa (eds.) Urban machinery: inside modern European cities. Cambridge (Mass.), The MIT Press

Doxiadis, C.A. (1968) Ekistics. An introduction to the science of human settlements. New York, Oxford University Press

Duany, A. & E. Talen (2013) Landscape urbanism and its discontents. Dissimulating the sustainable city. S.l., New society publishers

Dümpelmann, S. (2005) The park international: park system planning as an international phenomenon at the beginning of the twentieth century, GHI bulletin 37: 75-86

European Commission (2011) A growth package for integrated European infrastructures. Brussels

European Commission (2012) TEN-T: Transport infrastructure. Brussels

Ferrao, P. & J. Fernandez (2013) Sustainable metabolism. Cambridge (Mass.), The MIT Press.

Gharajedaghi, J. (2011) Systems thinking. Managing chaos and complexity. Amsterdam, etc., Morgan Kaufmann

Guldi, J. (2012) Roads to power. Britain invents the infrastructure state. Cambridge (Mass.), Harvard University Press

Habraken, N.J. (1972) Supports. An alternative to mass housing. New York, Praeger publishers

Hagan, S. (2015) Ecological Urbanism: The Nature of the City. London, Routledge

Hauck, T., R. Keller & V. Kleinekort (eds.) (2011) Infrastructural design. Addressing the in-between. Berlin, DOM publishers

Hennebo, D. & E. Schmidt [1975] Entwicklung des stadtgrüns in England (Geschichte des stadtgrüns, band III), Hannover, Patzer Verlag

Hölzer, C. et al. (eds.) (2008) Riverscapes. Designing Urban Embankments. Basel, etc., Birkhäuser

Hough, M. (2004) Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. London, Routledge

Kriken. J.L. (2010) City building. Nine planning principles for the twenty-first century. New York, Princeton Architectural Press

Mayne, T. (2011) Combinatory urbanism. The complex behaviour of collective form. Culver City, Stray Dog Café

McClusky, J. (1979) Road form and townscape. London, Architectural Press

Meyer, E.K. (1997) ‘The expanding field of landscape architecture’, in: Thompson, G.F. & F.R. Steiner (eds.) Ecological Design and Planning. New York, Wiley, pp. 45-79

Meyer, H., S. Nijhuis, S. & R. Broesi (2014) ‘Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt Delta, Netherlands’, in: Meyer, H & S. Nijhuis (eds.) Urbanized deltas in transition. Amsterdam, Techne Press, pp. 41-50

Meyer, H. & S. Nijhuis (eds.) (2014) Urbanizing deltas in transition. Amsterdam, Techne press

Mostafavi, M. & C. Najle, (eds.) (2003) Landscape Urbanism. A Manual for the Machinic Landscape. London, Architectural Association

Mostafavi, M. & G. Doherthy (eds.) (2010) Ecological urbanism. Baden, Lars Müller Publishers

Nijhuis, S. (2013) ‘Principles of landscape architecture’, in: Farina, E. & S. Nijhuis (eds.) Flowscapes. Exploring landscape infrastructures. Madrid, Mairea Libros Publishers, pp. 52-61

Nijhuis, S. & Jauslin, D. (2013) ‘Flowscapes. Design studio for landscape infrastructures’, Atlantis 23(3): 60-62

North, A. (2013) Operative landscapes. Building communities through public space. Basel, etc., Birkhäuser

Otto, F. (2011) Occupying and connecting. Thoughts on territories and spheres of influence with particular reference to human settlement. S.l., Edition Axel Menges

PERSI Technical Committee (2006) Proposed plan for the assessment of knowledge and practice for sustainable infrastructure. S.l.: Practice, Education and Research for Sustainable Infrastructure (PERSI)

Picon, A. (2005) ‘Constructing landscape by engineering water’, in: Institute for landscape architecture (ed.) Landscape architecture in mutation. Zurich, Gta Velag, pp. 99-115

Picon, A. (2009) French Architects and Engineers in the Age of Enlightenment (Cambridge Studies in the History of Architecture). Cambridge (Mass.), Cambridge University Press

Pollalis, S. et al. (eds.) (2012) Infrastructure, sustainability and design. London, Routledge

Portugali, J., et al. (eds.) (2012) Complexity theories of cities have come of age. An overview with implications to urban planning and design. Berlin, Springer

Prominski, M. et al. (2012) River. Space. Design. Planning strategies, methods and projects for urban rivers. Basel, etc., Birkhäuser

Prossek, A. et al. (2009) Atlas der Metropole Ruhr. Vielfalt und wandel des Ruhrgebietes im kartbild. S.l., H.J. Emons Verlag

Reed, C. & N.M. Lister (eds.) (2014) Projective ecologies. S.l., Actar

Rouse, D.C. & I.F. Bunster-Ossa (2013) Green infrastructure: a landscape approach. APA

Schuyler, D. (1986) The new urban landscape. The redefinition of city form in nineteenth-century America. Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press

Shannon, K. & M. Smets (2010) The Landscape of Contemporary Infrastructure. Rotterdam, NAi Publishers

Shannon, K. & M. Smets (2011) Towards integrating infrastructure and landscape. Topos 74: 64-71

Shöbel, S. (2012) Windenergie & landschaftsästhetik. Zur landschaftsgerechten anordnung von windfarmen. Berlin, Jovis verlag

Sijmons, D. (2012) ‘Simple rules. Emerging order? A designer’s curiosity about complexity theories’, in: J. Portugali et al. (eds.) Complexity theories of cities have come of age. An overview with implications to urban planning and design. Berlin, Springer, pp. 281-309

Sijmons, D. (2014a) ‘Waking up in the Antropocene’, in: Brugmans. G. & J. Strien (eds.) Urban by Nature. Catalogue IABR 2014. Rotterdam, NAi publishers, pp. 12-20

Sijmons, D. (2014b) Landscape and energy. Designing transition. Rotterdam, NAi Publishers

Snow, W.B. (1959) The highway and the landscape. New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press

Strang, G.L. (1996) Infrastructure as Landscape [Infrastructure as Landscape, Landscape as Infrastructure]. Places, 10(3): 8

SWA (eds.) (2011) Landscape Infrastructure: Case Studies by SWA. Basel, etc., Birkhäuser

Thayer, R. (1994) Gray world, green heart. Technology, nature and the sustainable landscape. New York, etc., Wiley

Tjallingi, S. (1995) Ecopolis. Strategies for Ecologically Sound Urban Development. Leiden, Backhuys Publishers

Van Acker, M. (2014) From flux to frame. Designing infrastructure and shaping urbanization in Belgium. Leuven, Leuven University Press

Van Winden, W. (2015). The diabolic highway. On the tradition of the beautiful road in the Dutch landscape and the appetite for the magnificent highway in the big city. Research In Urbanism Series 3(1), doi:10.7480/rius.3.835

Viljoen, A. (ed.) (2005) CPULS. Continuous productive urban landscapes. Designing urban agriculture for sustainable cities. London, Routledge

Waldheim, C. (2002) Landscape urbanism. A geneology. Praxis (4): 10

Waldheim, C. (ed.) (2006) The Landscape Urbanism Reader. New York, Princeton Architectural Press

Waldheim, C. (2010) ‘Notes Toward a History of Agrarian Urbanism’, in: White, M. & M. Przybylsk (eds.) Bracket 1: On Farming. S.l., Actar

Waldheim, C. (2011) ‘Urbanism after form’, in: Infranet Lab/Lateral office (eds.) Coupling. Strategies for infrastructural opportunism (Pamphlet architecture 30). New York, Princeton University Press

Waldheim, C. & A. Berger (2008) Logistics Landscape. Landscape Journal 27(2): 219-246

WCED - World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future. United Nations

Woolley, H. (2003) Urban open spaces. London, Spon Press

Zapatka, C. (1995) The American landscape. New York, Princeton Architectural Press

Zeller, T. (2002) Straße, Bahn, Panorama: Verkehrswege und Landschaftsveränderung in Deutschland von 1930 bis 1990 (Beiträge zur Historischen Verkehrsforschung des Deutschen Museums). S.l., Campus Verlag




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7480/rius.3.874

Copyright (c) 2015 Steffen Nijhuis, Daniel Jauslin

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.